Sunday, November 6, 2011

Story and Analysis of Rumpelstiltskin

Article by Ty Hulse

Read the Original Story

According to Sara Graça da Silva and Jamshid J. Tehrani's research the Rumpelstiltskin stories are likely over 2500 years old, and possibly as old as the Indo-European's life on the Steppes 6000 years ago. Most of the stories related to Rumpelstiltskin involve a fairy being trying to take the woman to be his wife. In fact the version taken down by the Brother's Grimm, the story of "Rumpelstiltskin" is the only story I know of where the fairy wants a baby. This begs the question "Why is this story different?"

It may of course be that Rumpelstiltskin is different because the woman who told it to the Brothers Grimm, being educated, changed it. It may be that they changed it. However, this article presumes that the story is different because of regional differences. 

Like many fairy tales, “Rumpelstiltskin” is a story that is without a character which we can define as pure or innocent. Rather, it’s a story of two obviously wicked characters in the form of the father who lies to and thus ends up getting his daughter in a lot of trouble with the king who is a greedy man who cares about nothing but the gold he can get out of the miller’s daughter. Not all the characters are wicked, of course. The miller’s daughter clearly isn’t evil when she agrees to give a baby to a strange man, just desperate. She has been forced into an inescapable predicament by the two men in her life that she should be able to trust above anyone else, her father and her future husband. Clearly this situation puts her in a space between. She is not yet a fiance, yet she is no longer free in that regard. She is trapped in a prison, but an honored guest. She is between being a member of her father’s house, the executioner, and the king’s household. It is at this moment when she is trapped; pulled by so many worlds that the fairy appears.

In many ways Rumpelstiltskin is the most confusing and intriguing part of this story. For this particular “männlein,” as the German text designates, Rumpelstiltskin, despite outward appearances, is neither clear in his goal nor his motivation. On the cusp of it, it would seem that he wants the girl’s first-born baby. However, most fairies in stories don’t ask for the child they want, instead they simply take it. Rumpelstiltskin, however, despite being clearly able to sneak into a prison, being able to weave magic doesn’t just take the child as he obviously could. He tries to get the girl to accept giving the baby to him. What’s more, even after he comes to collect the child, he decides to give her another chance to escape her agreement with him.

Considering that during the time this story takes place children were left in the forests in droves or orphaned on the streets, Rumpelstiltskin could have taken hundreds of children easily, and taking them would have been an act of kindness as Rumpelstiltskin would have been rescuing them from starvation. He doesn’t just want any baby then. What he wants is this particular baby. Indeed, by his own words, this baby is more precious to him than all the treasures in the world.
We are left then with two questions, the first being, why doesn’t Rumpelstiltskin simply take the baby? Secondly, why does Rumpelstiltskin want the baby in the first place? To answer these questions, we must examine what fairies are as well as a few other fairy tales. Let us begin by placing Rumpelstiltskin into the possible categories of fairy to see where he might fit, or if he even has a place as all fairies don’t necessarily seem to.

Possibility 1 - Rumpelstiltskin is an ancestor spirit or a forgotten god.

At first glance this idea may seem preposterous; however, consider that Merlin was raised by a fairy as was Malagigi the wizard who aided Charlemagne in myth. King Arthur was taken by Merlin who saw his future before he was even born, and Lancelot was taken and raised by fairies as well. This might mean then that Rumpelstiltskin is after the child because he sees the child’s future or at least its potential future. This particular baby is not just that of the girl’s after all but also that of a king, and so is the future king just as King Arthur was. Thus, Rumpelstiltskin doesn’t just want any baby he wants to raise, or have someone else raise a king, while removing the child and future king from what is quite possibly a long line of tyrants or, at the very least, from his currently greedy father. We see something similar happen in a French fairy tale in which a fairy tells the king and queen:

“If I left him (your son) to you to bring up... you would be certain to make him as foolish as yourselves. I do not even intend to let him know that he is your son.” 

So at least in one incidence a fairy claims to be removing a child from their parents to help insure that they are raised properly. While one can’t always trust fairies, of course, we must again recall that the fairies don’t have to give any explanation. They can just take the child if they want it and leave. Further, we must also consider that because Rumpelstiltskin may potentially be able to see the future, that he is actually after the child he knows he loves more than “all the treasures in the world.” As an ancestor or deity, he could be the either the child’s grandfather or seeking a way to help his decendents by putting a better king on the throne.

Possibility 2 - Rumpelstiltskin is the spirit of a conquered people or one of their gods. In this possibility, Rumpelstiltskin might be after a mixture of revenge or is attempting to help his people rise up to their former glory by raising the future king of the land. In this he could be a Merlin-like figure of a conquered people who, just as Malagigi the wizard of Charlemagne’s court, was later derided as a devil by later people. Rumpelstiltskin might be a hero to a conquered people still hiding in the woods thus making him an enemy to the kingdom.

Possibility 3 - Rumpelstiltskin is a nature spirit or a simply a unique fairy. It is more challenging to understand the reason a nature spirit or unique fairy would be interested in a specific human child except that perhaps they are aware that they do love the child because of divination. Another possibility comes to us from the story of Powell in Wales in which a human king aids the fairies by slaying an enemy they couldn’t. Thus, it’s conceivable that a nature fairy could desire to take a specific child because it knows that it loves or could help that child.

Possibility 4 - Rumpelstiltskin is a devil/fallen angel or witch. Although I’ve chosen to leave this theory of fairy nature out of this book because it is a much later addition to the fairy theory and so ultimately doesn’t fit within a book explaining the motivations of fairies in more original traditions, it is still conceivable that Rumpelstiltskin is meant by the storytellers to be a devil trying to tempt the girl into the sin of giving away her child. Ultimately, however, while this idea could be workable, after thousands of years of Christianizing the people, telling this story would likely jump on the opportunity to accuse a creature of being a devil if they thought it was so.

Through this simple review we can now see that Rumpelstiltskin is after the baby for four possible reasons:

1 - Rumpelstiltskin wants the baby because he knows that he loves him.

2 - He sees the baby’s future and realizes that it can be a good king finally bringing peace to the land of his ancestors.

3 - He seeks revenge or a way to protect his fallen people.

4 - He knows he’ll need the baby’s help at some future date.

To understand which of these answers makes sense, we must find an answer to the second question: Why doesn’t Rumpelstiltskin just take the baby? Again, there are a number of possible answers which present themselves:

1- Rumpelstiltskin doesn’t simply take the baby in order to mock the miller’s daughter. It’s possible, of course, given the capricious nature of fairies that Rumpelstiltskin is simply teasing the girl, mocking her as mischievous fairies often do. However, if this is the case, why not simply take the child even if she is successful in guessing his name?

2- Rumpelstiltskin seeks to lead the miller’s daughter into sin. The girl is the only good character in the story. If Rumpelstiltskin can get her to give her child to a devil, then he has caused her to sin. The problem with this theory, however, is that if his goal is to cause her to sin, why give her any chance to redeem herself? Why not simply take the child as per their first agreement? Further, why would he suspect the devil of telling the girl his name as he accused when she discovered it if doing so would cause him to lose her soul? In general, this answer makes no sense so it further eliminates the possibility that he is a devil or fallen angel.

3- Rumpelstiltskin has a conflict. Rumpelstiltskin knows what he needs to do; he knows that he can make the kingdom better, gain help from the child, have a child of his own, etc., but he has a conflict about his method of doing it. So he doesn’t simply want to take the child from its mother. He wants her to accept the loss. In the end, however, he realizes that this is impossible and so he symbolically tears himself in two, ripping his dual nature in half.

4- Rumpelstiltskin is after something more than the child. In a similar story, that of Tim Tom Tat, a little, hairy creature offers to weave for a girl in return for her child. In a similar vein, it’s possible that Rumpelstiltskin is hoping by giving the girl a second chance to save the baby he’ll be able to make her feel so defeated that she agrees to come with him. In this case, he is after both the future king and the queen.

5-In another similar story, the Scottish Rumpelstiltskin Whuppity Stoorie tells the girl that fairy law requires that she give the girl three days to guess her name. This is a confusing requirement as, again, fairies take babies without asking all the time. So why do they have to give a person the chance to get out of it unless there is something else at play because of the girl or the child’s relationship to the fairy world?

It seems most likely, given all the possibilities, that Rumpelstiltskin gives the girl a chance to get out of giving him the child because he is in a conflict about what he’s doing. Recalling also that fairies can be multi-natured, we must also consider the possibility that part of him is perhaps trying to force the other part of him to allow the girl to keep the child because he feels sorry for her. This makes even more sense considering what Rumpelstiltskin is. The German version of the Rumpelstiltskin’s fairy tale uses the word “männlein” to represent him as opposed to the word Zwerge (dwarf) or some other word it could use.

Männleins in fairy tales have a history of helping girls marry the prince. In the story of “The Three Männlein of the Woods” a young girl is sent by her evil stepmother into the snowy forest to pick strawberries. As she searches for a way to complete her impossible task, she stumbles upon a cottage of three männlein who, in return for her kindness, make gold coins fall from her mouth whenever she speaks, cause her to grow ever more beautiful, and bless her that she’ll marry the king. In other tales, männlein offer advice to princes, or to young men, in order help them rescue a kingdom and save the princesses.

Zwerge, on the other hand, feature promptly in two other stories. These are “Snow White” and the “Snow White and Rose Red.” In one of these stories the Zwerge while helpful are essentially helpless bystanders as a wicked witch descends on the also helpless princess. In other words, the Zwerge are essentially subject to fate as much as anyone else. Their home simply seems to be a safe place to hide out. In the other story, the Zwerge is the villain though he is not that impressive in his abilities as he keeps getting his beard caught in bushes and stumps which means that he requires a young girl to rescue him.

Männleins, on the other hand, tend to appear as knowledgeable. They are the creators of fate. Rumpelstiltskin himself is so good at spinning he can spin straw into gold, spinning ultimately being the activity used to help control fate. Rumpelstiltskin was also showed just when the girl needed him and is also capable of doing the impossible to help her. So he clearly is able to manipulate the future. What we must presume then is that, at least to an extent, Rumpelstiltskin is attempting to create fate. However, neither his ability to tell when someone needs his help nor his ability to do the impossible prevents him from giving the girl the chance to get out of having her baby taken from her. So obviously he’s in a conflict about what he’s doing. So it’s likely that like the other Männlein he is kind and is essentially attempting to make the world a better place. However, in doing so he has stepped outside of his usual role of helping damsels in distress and princes on quests and is now trying to steal a prince from a damsel in distress.

Rumpelstiltskin then is most likely some form of deity or ancestor spirit seeking to help his people by raising a king who will actually be good and a child which he loves. Unfortunately, in order to do this properly he must play the role of a villain, a role at least half of his dual nature is not comfortable with. This is why he tries at first to give the miller’s daughter a chance to keep her baby.

My Book on fairies in which I break down fairies by their motivations, their character traits, etc, instead of by where they lived.
Fairies are some of the most compelling characters in fairy tales, yet few people understand them. From fairy refugees to blood thirsty vampires this book takes you on a journey to discover what drove these characters, where they came from, and what they wanted.


Abby said...

Amazing! I was contemplating just this topic today, and low you have the answer! Providence!

Nukiuk said...

Thanks, I'm happy to know the article helped. I've been spending a long time trying to understand fairies as if they have a motivation because while most people now don't necessarily think they exist people once did.

Anonymous said...

The "Rumpelstiltskin conflict" analysis is superb. It really got me thinking.

Jesse Torres said...

Extremely well written analysis. I myself have always been fascinated with this story because of how in the dark we are in regards to Rumplestilskins motives. Your points have given me a broader scope onto the possibilities of his actions and I appreciate that. It really challenges me to think deeper about this wonderful story.

Anonymous said...

I don't agree with this analysis.

Fairy Tales were written for simple people. And usually taught some lesson about the dangers to avoid or the consequences of a difficult decision.

I would say that Rumpelstilskin saw a damsel in distress. He offered to help. The more he helped the more he wanted to conquer her sexually.

Whether this was the original intention of the man is not clear. The adage of men want to conquer women or make them their mothers.

Maybe, it was the unwritten rule of the age regarding relationships between men and women--that when you depend on someone or ask a man for help you have to give something back-your virginity (first baby-since women weren't supposed to have sex before marriage back then).

Her father lies to the king and then leaves his daughter helpless. Sexual slavery or providing heirs to the throne. Here is my daughter she will make you a lot of money or give you heirs if you take her (or maybe he means purchase her.)

the daughter is not able to perform the functions or tasks the king requires in a wife--so naturally the man takes out his anger at being misled by the father on the daughter. and has no more use for her. kinda like anne boleyn not producing a male heir for henry the 8th. or maybe she's just boring and uninteresting to him.

rumple is the solution. he either has relations with her to produce an heir. or he teaches her how to be less boring.

now king is interested. agrees to marry her. ut oh-shes pregnant by someone else. or the other guy is attached to her but her eye is on the king.

rumple is in denial--gives her another chance by saying just remember me or do the work to find out who I am.

she does--but it means nothing she is going with the king anyway. rumple is used and bereft. the end.

sorry these fairy tales are to give people reality checks not engage their unrealistic romantic fantasies....:)

Nukiuk said...

Hello Jennifer

Perhaps growing up with Yupik people changed my perceptions because while they didn't have writing until semi-recently they had complex stories about the nature of the world, about religion, etc.

For example there many stories about how the world was created, and lets not forget the stories which King Arthur was based on. None of which were necessarily meant to teach a moral.

Calling any people 'simple' is insulting, because although people weren't necessarily educated in the modern sense they still were able to think a lot and had lots of philosophical concerns. When the Roman's encountered the illiterate Germanic and Celtic people's they were shaken to the core to learn that much of their philosophy was the same. Indeed the "Poetic Edda," the Hindu's "Vedas," "The Bible," the texts on which Shintoism is based, "The Iliad and The Odyssey" and more all came out of folktales told by people with little or no education.

Indeed no matter where you go people contemplate the nature of the world, and tell stories about the major players involved in it. Of course Europe had an interesting situation in which many of these stories began to drift over time as Christianity took over, so meanings were lost. Worse still literature perverted many stories so it's difficult to tell exactly what they might originally have meant.

In terms of the possibility that it was an unwritten rule that a girl would have to give up her virginity in return for help, this wasn't necessarily the case. Of course there could easily have been the concern about accepting gifts from strangers. Though at the same time many girls in fairy tales are successful doing just that. Indeed accepting kindness is most often the only way for Fairy Tale heroes to succeed (Think of Snow White who receives help from the Seven Zwerg which are closely related to what Rumpelstiltskin was, or the girl who received help from Rumpelstiltskin like characters in "The Three Men in the Wood.") It's true that the British version of this story has the creature wanting to take the girl... However, the German version and the British version influenced each other but the characters are wholly different. Further if the Germanic version had been about Rumpelstiltskin seeking sex, it's likely it would have been stated at least a little more symbolically. In one Swiss Tale the little men told a girl that she would have to sleep with them in return for help, the wolf told Little Red Riding Hood to take off her clothes and throw them in the fire. Girls having to protect their virginity was an acceptable theme, one which was a little more overtly stated.

If this is a morality tale it's most likely one concerned with accepting help from fairies. Many early Missionaries told stories about how fairies were related to devils and fallen angels and that they tried to trick people. These were in turn retold until they influenced or became fairy tales themselves.

I have three concerns with this... The first is that Rumpelstiltskin acts differently than these by caring about living things and of course giving the girl a chance to get out of it. The second is that Rumpelstiltskin in a fury accuses the girl of working with the devil (if he was a devil why would he think that?)

Finally Missionary tales were an alteration of original ideas. So if this is a warning tale against fairies what was the original story about?

Unknown said...

Not sure but the 3 day thing could be a law or a mockery of the holy trinity.

If he was to lead her to sin by the 3rd day, then it would be in insult to God.

But i do not like the idea of him being truly evil, because the stories i heard he cant stand to see her cry, it forces him to.

Nukiuk said...

Marving -
That's an interesting idea, I hadn't thought of. Though I agree I don't tend to think of him as evil. Like most spirits at that time I tend to think of him as having multiple natures.

HT McCullough said...

Thanks for the insight...I'm a toastmaster working in the storytelling advanced manual. This helps put the fairy tale in perspective!

Crazy Arctic Explorette said...

Another good theory

Unknown said...

Is it possible that the Miller and Rumpelstiltskin are one and the same, sort of along werewolf lines and that he/they planned the whole thing? This would resonate with the man splitting in two at the end.

Nukiuk said...

Hello Susan,

Yes it's very possible that the miller would be involved. Millers were often considered magical beings, witches, so it may be that he was involved in the magical aspects of this story. The story, however, specifically refers to Rumpelstiltskin as a fairy, so if the miller was involved it's likely that they were working together, rather than one and the same. There are, however, some few people whose familiar spirit is the spirit of an ancestor. An uncle or in this case perhaps a father.

Unknown said...

Love all these comments and this posts I always love this story I see Rumpelstiltskin as a Hero one who has no motive unlike as he is a fairy so he needs no motive no hidden evil his is doing a kind. And takes pity.

Unknown said...

Is it possible that Rumpelstiltskin is used as a story to explain why fairies no longer talk to parents when they take the babies left out in the woods? For instance, the moral might be: Fairies used to deal with humans for babies but it always made a mess of things so now fairies prefer to take the babies silently, without human interaction.

I know it's 2016, years after your blog post, but would still like to know what you think.

Really like your post. Thanks!

Linda Vee Sado of Slippery When Wet said...

From research I did. Rumpelstiltskin was actually a Hobgoblin. Not some little pipsqueak like the Grimms bros version. And I know what he wanted the baby for. But it won't be revealed until I finish writing both the Anthology and matching music EP, "Fairy tales of Murder and Mayhem" by Slippery When Wet. These tales have all been so sanitized for the middle class. They were originally great and gruesome tales

Nukiuk said...

Hello Linda,

I do agree that many of the tales were horror stories, especially as specific warnings. I'm curious what reference you found that says Rumpelstiltskin wanted to eat the child. Most fairies wanted to make them slaves, wives, or offer them to hell. Of course almost every mention of männlein I've found makes them out to be nicer helpful spirits. Hobgoblins are most often kindly Welsh fairies that clean the house. Though they are annoying and fond of pranks. I suppose you could think of them as that obnoxious older brother. On occasion a hobgoblin would turn dangeorous, as all fairies occasionally do.

Still, as I said I'm curious what story or bit of lore you found that ever references a männlein eating a child?

Unknown said...

What's Rumpelstiltskin up to in this story? Consider that 1) he gives gold to the miller's daughter, and she gives him a necklace and then a ring in exchange; 2) he tries to make a deal with her to get her first child, so it sounds like he wants to be cast in the role of father; and 3) he tries to give her his name; this is what still happens in (most) marriages today, the woman takes the man's name (even though he goofed this part of it up). To me these three things all say he wanted to marry her.

Now, Rumpelstiltskin has higher standards than the other two, since he says "something alive is dearer to me than all the treasures in the world", and the other two are hung up on riches - the king wants the miller's daughter because of her gold, and the miller's daughter sets up an equivalence between life and money by trying to buy Rumpelstiltskin off with all the riches of the kingdom. But still Rumpelstiltskin seems like a bit of a klutz to me, because of the name goof-up and because he was willing to give so much help to a girl he didn't even know. So maybe the king and the miller's daughter deserved each other, and Rumpelstiltskin deserved what he got.

So I think the moral of the story is this: "Never give any money to a miller's daughter unless she actually deserves it. And stop shooting yourself in the foot."

Holly said...

Well, of course read it as a child and teenager never giving it this in depth.

My simple thought was he knew how deformed and ugly he was. This girl was between the devil and the hard place. Since he knew how to do this impossible task it was his chance to have an non deformed child to raise and love of his own.

And heart beat after heart beat, he desired this child he'd give her what he thought was the impossible task. Still it was honorably a slim chance.

Someone helped her out with the name. Not fair! NOT FAIR!